**Scientific Track**

Authors:

Christian Knoll, Graz University of Technology

Michael Rath, www.sbox.tugraz.at

Sebastian Tschiatschek, www.inf.ethz.ch

Franz Pernkopf, Graz University of Technology

Abstract:

Approximate inference in large and densely connected graphical models is a challenging but highly relevant problem. Belief propagation, as a method for performing approximate inference in loopy graphs, has shown empirical success in many applications. However, convergence of belief propagation can only be guaranteed for simple graphs. Whether belief propagation converges depends strongly on the applied message update scheme, and specialized schemes can be highly beneficial. Yet, residual belief propagation is the only established method utilizing this fact to improve convergence properties. In experiments, we observe that residual belief propagation fails to converge if local oscillations occur and the same sequence of messages is repeatedly updated. To overcome this issue, we propose two novel message update schemes. In the first scheme we add noise to oscillating messages. In the second scheme we apply weight decay to gradually reduce the influence of these messages and consequently enforce convergence. Furthermore, in contrast to previous work, we consider the correctness of the obtained marginals and observe significant performance improvements when applying the proposed message update schemes to various Ising models with binary random variables.

## Connect